Giorgos Economou, Ioannis Kandarakis, Giorgos Panagiotakis, Ioannis Vlachos


The X-ray tube is one of the most important components in any X-ray system. In the beginning, physicists and physicians used gas ion tubes. The so-called Coolidge tube applied a high vacuum and is still used today. Medical examinations have required continuously improved designs of X-ray tubes (smaller focal spots at a higher output). The principle of the Goetze line focus is still applied in any diagnostic X-ray tube. Different anode materials and the rotating anode contributed to an increased output and reduced exposure time. Bearings needed special attention. Spiral groove bearings are the most advanced design today. The heat storage capacity of the anode and the tube housing assembly influences examination time and patient throughput. Cardiac imaging required less motion blurring in cine film images and increasing radiation exposure in interventional procedures calling for measures to reduce dose. Protection against radiation and electric shock has always been a concern of design engineers. Focal spot sizes dedicated to specific applications and heat management within the total tube housing assembly will be future issues. Even in the event of ultrasound and MR technology, X-ray procedures will still be applied for diagnostic and interventional purposes.


Education, X-ray tube, X-rays, Ionization (Ionization) Radiation , X- ray Radiologists & Radioprotection Protection, Medical Instruments Technologists, X-ray Departments Nurses, X-ray Department Doctors

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