Ioannis Vlachos, Ioannis Kandarakis, Giorgos Panayiotakis


Radiation protection for personnel working with X-rays is of vital importance. Several studies have been published regarding the secondary radiation and the shielding requirements to areas that are adjacent to the X-ray units. In this work, secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of dose rate (mSv/hr), as a function of different radiographic exposure factors has been studied. The measurements were performed with a 451P Fluke Biomedical survey meter on a Philips Medio 65 CP-H X-ray generator with a cylindrical water phantom. It was found that the dose rate from the scatter radiation decreases with distance. An added filtration of 2.0 mmAl at 100 kVp reduced the secondary dose rate further by 21.4%. The results of this study may be of value during exposure of personnel that are not protected by shielding materials.


  • It was found that the dose rate from the scatter radiation decreases with distance. An added filtration of 2.0 mmAl at 100 kVp reduced the secondary dose rate further by 21.4%.
  • The mean secondary X-ray energies for 60, 80, 100 and 100 kV with 2 mmAl added, were calculated as 34.41, 51.12, 69.03 and 71.29 keV respectively.
  • The results of this study are of value during exposure of people such as radiographers, and patients during the use of mobile X-ray units.


Scatter Radiation, Dose mapping, Radiation protection

Full Text:



International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2004. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography. IAEA Safety Standards Series, IAEA-TECDOC-1423,, December.

IAEA Safety Reports Series No 39, 2006. Applying Radiation Safety Standards in Diagnostic radiology and Interventional Procedures Using X-rays. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), STI/PUB/1206, ISBN 92-0-111004-9, Vienna.

European Commission, 2008. European Guidance on Estimating Population Doses from Medical X-ray Procedures. Radiation Protection No 154, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, Directorate H-Nuclear Energy, Unit H.4-Radiation Protection.

Poludniowski GG, 2007. Calculation of x-ray spectra emerging from an x-ray tube. Part II. X-ray production and filtration in x-ray targets. Med Phys. 34, 2175-2186.

McCullough EC, Cameron JR, 1970. Exposure rates from diagnostic X-ray units. Br. J. Radiol. 43, 448–451.

Simpkin D J, and Dixon R. L, 1998. Secondary shielding barriers for diagnostic X-rays facilities scatter and leakage revisited. Health Phys. 74, 350-365.

Tsalafoutas I.A, Yakoumakis E, and Sandilos P, 2003. A model for calculating shielding requirements in diagnostic X-ray facilities. Br. J. Radiol. 76, 731–737.

Noto K, Koshida K, 2003. Estimation of 90° scattering coefficient in the shielding calculation of diagnostic x-ray equipment. Proceedings of the eleventh EGS4 users' meeting in Japan, KEK proceedings. 15, p.107-113.

Mellenberg DE, Sato Y, Thompson BH, Warnock NG, 1999. Personnel exposure rates during simulated Biopsies with a real-time Ct Scanner. Acad. Radiol. 6, 687-690.

Mc Vey G, Phil D, Weatherburn H, 2004. A study of scatter in diagnostic x-ray rooms. Br. J. Radiol. 77, 28–38.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Structural Shielding design and evaluation for medical use of X-rays and gamma rays of energies up to 10 MeV. NCRP Report No. 49, 2009. Bethesda: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

Noto K, Koshida K, Iida H, Yamamoto T, Kobayashi I, Kawabata C, 2009. Investigation of scatter fractions for estimating leakage dose in medical X-ray imaging facilities. Radiol. Phys. Technol., 2, 138-144.

Health Physics Society, Specialists in Radiation Safety. Instrumentation and measurements – Surveys and measurements, (last accessed May) 2013.

Fluke Biomedical model 451P-DE-SI manual, (last accessed May) 2013.

Economides S, Hourdakis CJ, Kalivas N, Kalathatki M, Simantirakis G, Tritakis P, Manousaridis G, Vogiatzi S, Kipouros P, Boziari A, Kamenopoulou V, 2007. Performance of medical radiographic X-ray systems in Greece for the time period 1998-2004. Physica Medica. 23, 107-114.

PTW, (last accessed May) 2013.

Tsalafoutas IA, 2006. Excessive leakage radiation measured on two mobile X-ray units due to the methodology used by the manufacturer to calculate and specify the required tube shielding. Br. J. Radiol. 79, 162–164.

Michail C.M., Spyropoulou V.A., Fountos G.P., Kalyvas N.I., Valais I.G., Kandarakis I.S. and Panayiotakis G.S, 2011. Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation of a High Resolution CMOS Based Detector Under X-ray Imaging Conditions, IEEE TNS 58, 314-322.


  • There are currently no refbacks.